By Lakshmi Bangalore
Introduces simple mind anatomy and mind improvement to highschool scholars. This booklet discusses the molecular foundation of imperative anxious approach specification, ranging from neural induction and trend formation to neural migration, axon information, and synapse formation.
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Additional info for Brain Development (Gray Matter)
As this happens, the material inside the extensions get squeezed out, leaving behind compacted stacks of cell membrane around the axon core. The wrapping of myelin is not continuous along the axon’s length. Instead, myelination is interrupted by gaps, or bare sections called nodes of Ranvier. 2 An oligodendrocyte extends many branches which contact and spiral around axons to form myelin. Special molecular cues direct oligodendrocytes to selectively wrap myelin only around axon segments between the nodes of Ranvier.
These precursors eventually give rise to mature oligodendrocytes capable of myelination. The protein sonic hedgehog is one of the key signals that control the production of oligodendrocytes from the pool of neural stem cells. Studies have shown that the removal of sonic hedgehog prevents oligodendrocyte precursors from being generated. On the other hand, application of additional sonic hedgehog leads to the formation of more oligodendrocyte precursors. Another factor, a cell surface receptor known as neuregulin, is thought to also play a role in creating oligodendrocytes.
2 Radial glia act as guides for newly formed neurons by leading them to their final destinations in the cerebral cortex. in each layer become specialized in form and function to perform their assigned roles in the brain. Until recently, it was a long-held belief that new neurons are produced only before birth and that neurons in the adult brain can never be replaced if they are lost. Although most of the neurons in the brain are already present at the time of birth, there is now increasing evidence that the adult brain has the capacity to generate new neurons.
Brain Development (Gray Matter) by Lakshmi Bangalore