By Frank L. Smith III
Biological guns have threatened U.S. nationwide defense for the reason that at the very least international warfare II. traditionally, even though, the U.S. army has ignored examine, improvement, acquisition, and doctrine for biodefense. Following September eleven and the anthrax letters of 2001, the USA began spending billions of greenbacks in step with 12 months on clinical countermeasures and organic detection platforms. yet so much of this investment now comes from the dep. of health and wellbeing and Human prone instead of the dep. of security. Why has the U.S. army missed biodefense and allowed civilian corporations to take the lead in protecting the rustic opposed to organic assaults? In American Biodefense, Frank L. Smith III addresses this complicated and mostly untold tale approximately technology, expertise, and nationwide security.
Smith argues that organizational frames and stereotypes have brought on either army forget and the increase of civilian biodefense. within the armed providers, influential rules approximately kinetic struggle have undermined security opposed to organic battle. The impression of those principles on technology and expertise demanding situations the traditional knowledge that nationwide safeguard coverage is pushed via threats or bureaucratic pursuits. Given the guidelines at paintings contained in the U.S. army, Smith explains how the teachings discovered from biodefense can assist resolve different vital difficulties that diversity from radiation guns to cyber attacks.
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Additional resources for American Biodefense: How Dangerous Ideas about Biological Weapons Shape National Security
17 The civilian Bureau of Mines started research on chemical defense in February 1917, but the Army did not seriously investigate this problem until months after the United States entered the war—a war in which chemical weapons had already been used for several years. ”18 US forces were unprepared for chemical warfare on the Western Front and therefore needed the CWS. Despite the manifest threat, however, the secretary of war and chief of staff wanted to abolish the CWS immediately after World War I.
27 Tons of smallpox and anthrax were stockpiled for use in the event of war. 28 Medium-range bombers such as the Illyushin-28 were also equipped with spray tanks and cluster bombs to attack targets at the operational level of warfare. The United States was aware of the Soviet BW program throughout the Cold War. 30 Doubts were expressed during the 1960s but soon swept aside. In 1975 and 1976, intelligence officials even leaked evidence to the press to suggest that the Soviet Union was violating the Biological Weapons Convention at Sverdlovsk and other facilities.
These ideas are not an automatic response to the threat environment). , their content is not the inevitable byproduct of generic interests in funding and autonomy). 69 These ideas provide a common framework for interpreting reality. They only highlight certain aspects of reality, however, and so organizational frames both enable and constrain action. Some actions are enabled because the problems and solutions they involve are salient inside the organization’s dominant frame of reference. One consequence is that the science and technology used for these problems will benefit from ample if not excessive resources.
American Biodefense: How Dangerous Ideas about Biological Weapons Shape National Security by Frank L. Smith III